Metabolic syndrome and Weight loss surgery

  • What's Metabolic Syndrome?

    Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and type II diabetes. It includes:

    • High blood pressure.
    • High blood sugar level.
    • Excess body fat around the waist.
    • Abnormal cholesterol levels.
    • High triglycerides level.

    Obviously, having any one of these risk factors isn't good. But when they're combined, they set the stage for grave problems. These risk factors double your risk of blood vessel and heart disease, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes. They increase your risk of diabetes by five times.
    Metabolic syndrome is also becoming more common. But the good news is that it can be controlled, largely with changes to your lifestyle.

  • Causes of Metabolic Syndrome

    The metabolic syndrome includes several symptoms that have different causes:

    • Insulin resistance
      Metabolic syndrome is linked to your body's metabolism, possibly to a condition called insulin resistance. Normally, your digestive system breaks down the foods you eat into sugar (glucose). Your blood carries the glucose to your body's tissues, where the cells use it as fuel. Glucose enters your cells with the help of insulin. In people with insulin resistance, cells don't respond normally to insulin, and glucose can't enter the cells as easily. As a result, glucose levels in your blood rise despite your body's attempt to control the glucose by churning out more and more insulin. The result is higher than normal levels of insulin in your blood. Increased insulin raises your triglyceride level and other blood fat levels. It also interferes with how your kidneys work, leading to higher blood pressure.
    • Obesity
      • A body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 increases your risk of metabolic syndrome.
      • Abdominal obesity (extra fat in the belly) increases your risk of metabolic syndrome.
    • Unhealthy lifestyle
      Eating a diet high in fats and Lack of exercise can play a role.
    • Aging
    • Hormonal imbalance
      Hormones may play a role. For instance, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related to hormonal imbalance and metabolic syndrome.
  • Tests and diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is present if you have three or more of the following signs:

    Large waist circumference


    Greater than 102 cm



    Greater than 89 cm

    High Triglycerides level


    Higher than 150 mg/dL



    You're receiving treatment for high triglycerides

    Low HDL (good) cholesterol


    Less than 40 mg/dL



    Less than 50 mg/dL



    You’re receiving treatment for low HDL

    High fasting blood sugar


    Higher than 100 mg/dL



    You’re receiving treatment for high blood sugar

    High blood pressure


    Higher than 130/85 mmHg



    You’re receiving treatment for high blood pressure

  • Health risks of Metabolic Syndrome

    Having metabolic syndrome can increase your risk of developing these conditions:

    • Heart disease
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Stroke
    • Kidney disease
    • Poor blood supply to the legs
  • Treatments and drugs of Metabolic Syndrome
    Your doctor will recommend lifestyle changes or medicines to help reduce your blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and blood sugar. Getting more physical activity, losing weight and quitting smoking help reduce blood pressure and improve cholesterol and blood sugar levels. These changes are keys to reducing your risk.


    Get 30-60 minutes of moderate intensity exercise, such as walking, 5 - 7 days per week.

    Lose weight

    Losing 5 - 10 % of your body weight can reduce insulin levels and blood pressure and decrease your risk of diabetes.

    Eat healthy

    Eat fiber-rich foods and make sure you include healthy foods in your meals as whole grains, beans, fruits and vegetables. These items are packed with dietary fiber, which can lower your insulin levels.

    Stop smoking

    Smoking cigarettes increases insulin resistance and worsens the health consequences of metabolic syndrome.

    Improve your cholesterol (HDL “good” cholesterol and LDL “bad” cholesterol)

    Using weight loss, exercise, and medicines, if needed.

    Lower your triglycerides

    Using weight loss, exercise, and medicine, if needed.

    Lower your blood pressure

    Using weight loss, exercise, and medicine, if needed.

    Lower your fasting blood sugar

    Using weight loss, exercise, and medicine, if needed.

    Low-dose aspirin


  • Metabolic Syndrome and Weight Loss Surgery
    Weight loss surgery (bariatric surgery) is the only option today that effectively treats morbid obesity in people for whom more conservative measures such as diet, exercise, and medication have failed. Studies have shown that all aspects of metabolic syndrome including blood pressure, cholesterol, and increased body weight may be improved by weight loss surgery for morbid obesity at one year after the procedure. These treatments include laparoscopic gastric bypass, Lap-Band, and sleeve gastrectomy. However, gastric bypass is considered the best weight loss surgery for metabolic syndrome. In addition, weight loss surgery for patients with metabolic syndrome is recently known as metabolic surgery.

    Metabolic weight loss surgery can dramatically improve or cure diabetes in some obese patients including a group that does not strictly meet the criteria of morbid obesity. Metabolic surgery can normalize blood glucose levels and allow for a discontinuation of insulin therapy. Curing diabetes through metabolic surgery has been a stunning and welcome development for a disease that has historically been considered chronic and irreversible. Also, metabolic surgery becomes the most effective line of treatment for increased blood pressure, triglycerides and cholesterol.


    Percentage of resolved diseases after weight loss surgery

    Type II Diabetes

    80 %

    High Blood Pressure

    70 %

    High Cholesterol or Triglycerides

    75 %

    Metabolic syndrome

    80 %

Adjustable Gastric Banding

Gastric banding is an adjustable gastric band that alters the anatomy of the stomach to help you reduce your food intake.

It is performed laparoscopically, meaning that the surgeon makes small incisions as opposed to one large incision.


Sleeve Gastrectomy?

Sleeve gastrectomy, or vertical sleeve gastrectomy, is one of the relatively newer types of weight loss surgery.

This surgery can also be referred to medically as gastric sleeve resection, gastric sleeve surgery or tube gastrectomy.


Gastric Bypass

Gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass) is regarded internationally as the “gold standard” of weight loss surgery designed to reduce your food intake if you have tried and failed to lose weight through diet and exercise. Follow up to 15 years after surgery has shown patients maintain weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.